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Over the last decades, an increasing number of functional and structural parts has been reengineered by replacing metallic materials by polymers, reinforced polymers and composites. The motivation for this substitution may be the weight reduction, the simpler, cheaper or faster forming process, or the ability to exploit additional functionalities.
The fillers usually employed cover a broad range involving many scales: (i) the nanometer scale (e.g. carbon nanotubes, graphene); (ii) the micrometer to the millimeter scale (particles and short fibers); (iii) the centimeter (e.G.SMC patches); and (iv) the macroscopic scale (continuous fibers arranged in bundles).
In the case of continuous fiber reinforced polymers, the impregnation of the reinforcement with a low viscosity polymer involves the flow of a (non-)Newtonian …
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